A meme is “a postulated unit of cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena.” The British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins postulated this concept in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene to explain the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena in evolutionary terms. Susan Blackmore, the British psycho-theorist, further developed Dawkins’ theory and believes that we are moving toward a new form of meme, the teme, which is spread by the technology we’ve created.
If we consider for the moment that memes do indeed exist (and their existence is far from certain), we could postulate that medical memes propagate through the medical community via medical journals, lectures and mentors. Published research eventually generates new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Much contemporary medical research in the U.S.A. is underwritten by the pharmaceutical industry.
Nowadays, children routinely take medication for chronic conditions such as allergic disease, asthma, ADHD, depression, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux and hypercholesterolemia. A spate of recent articles documents that 1 in 4 children covered by health insurance took some form of prescription medication in 2009. Annual spending for prescription drugs in children increased by 10.8 percent the same year, and the price of branded prescription drugs increased by 9.2 percent. Clearly, someone besides the patient is benefiting enormously from these trends in medical practice.
As a clinician who has worked on the front lines in ambulatory pediatrics for 30 years, I can vouch that these statistics seem to be supported by what I have observed over the past decade. The sheer number of children who take daily prescription medication for chronic conditions is astounding; and in my opinion these numbers will only escalate exponentially.
What drives these trends? Are clinicians becoming more astute at recognizing and diagnosing these conditions in children? Are the conditions themselves growing at an alarming rate secondary to cultural influences such as high fat diets, readily accessible food, over consumption of calories, unlimited access to TV and video games? Are parents themselves at fault, seemingly unable or unavailable to rear children with their best interests in mind?
Although any or all of these factors could potentially contribute to these disturbing trends, might medical memes—those ideas which seem to infiltrate medical practice and become acceptable norms—also play a role here? Are we clinicians too quick to reach for the prescription pad at the expense of taking time to offer wise counsel to our patients?
Some memes may replicate effectively even when they prove detrimental to the welfare of their hosts. According to Dawkins, “systems of self-replicating ideas can quickly accumulate their own agenda and behaviors,” which ultimately might prove to be good or ill for society, culture and the population at large.
Perhaps the medical profession needs to examine itself and take a closer look at what drives contemporary medical practice. In the meme, that might be a good thing.